Case studies & treatment options sources

The management information in the database is up to date as of May 2016. While we did our best to make these management descriptions as accurate as possible, inaccuracies may exist. If you consider information in the database to be incorrect, or know of a management programme that should be added please contact us.

All links to PDFs that are 2 MB or larger in size have been labelled.

Personal communications

Christina Boser, California Islands Ecologist, The Nature Conservancy,

Martin Coates, Consultative Committees Secretariat, Department of Agriculture and Water Resources,

Kevin Donmoyer, Field Operations Coordinator for CAST, US FWS,

Ben Hoffmann, Principal Research Scientist, Land and Water Flagship, CSIRO

Chris Green, Technical Advisor, Department of Conservation,

Christine Horlock, A/Manager Programme Support, Biosecurity Queensland Control Centre, DAF,

Lucy Karger, Yellow Crazy Ant Eradication Programme Coordinator, Wet Tropics Management Authority,

Stefan Kropidlowski, Refuge Manager, Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef National Wildlife Refuges, US FWS,

Dion Maple, Natural Resource Manager - Invasive Species, Christmas Island National Park,

Sheldon Plentovich, Pacific Islands Coastal Programme FWS, 

Cas Vanderwoude, Hawaii Ant Lab, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, UH,

Marc Widmer, Senior Technical Officer, DAFWA,


Kropidlowski, Woodward, Plentovich. 2012. Successful control of yellow crazy ants at Johnston Atoll NWR. 20th Annual Hawai’i Conservation Conference (Talk)

Plentovich, Russell, Camacho. 2012 The effects of yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) invasion and subsequent control on burrow-nesting seabirds in the Hawaiian archipelago. 20th Annual Hawai’i Conservation Conference (Talk)

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Journal articles / reports

Abedrabbo. 1994. Control of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos Islands. In: Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species (ed Williams), pp 23-43. Boulder, Westview Press

Burne, Barbieri, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Atafu, Tokelau (download 9 MB). Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Boland, Smith, Maple, Tiernan, Barr, Reeves, Napier. 2011. Heli-baiting using low concentration fipronil to control invasive yellow crazy ant supercolonies on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. In: Island invasives: eradication and management (eds Veitch, Clout, Towns), pp 152-156. Gland, IUCN

Boser, Hanna, Faulkner, Cory, Randall, Morrison. 2014. Argentine ant management in conservation areas: results of a pilot study (download 2 MB). Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist 7: 518-530

Boser, Hanna, Holway, Faulkner, Naughton, Merrill, Randall, Cory, Choe, Morrison. 2017. Protocols for Argentine ant eradication in conservation areas. Journal of Applied Entomology DOI: 10.1111/jen.12372

Burne, Gruber. 2015-2019. Management Plan Kiritimati, Kiribati (download 4.4 MB). Pacific Biosecurity Management Plan

Causton, Sevilla, Porter. 2005. Eradication of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from Marchena Island, Galapagos: on the edge of success? Florida Entomologist 88(2): 159-168

Craddock. 2015. Yellow crazy ant treatment on Atafu Atoll, Tokelau (download 2.8 MB). FBA consulting client report for Pacific Biosecurity

Gaigher, Samways, Jolliffe, Jolliffe. 2012. Precision control of an invasive ant on an ecologically sensitive tropical island: a principle with wide applicability. Ecological Applications 22(5): 1405: 14-12

Green. 2019. Effort required to confirm eradication of an Argentine ant invasion: Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand. In: Island invasives: scaling up to meet the challenge, (eds Veitch, Clout, Martin, Russell, West) pp 370–374. Gland, IUCN

Hoffmann. 2009. Ecological restoration following the local eradication of an invasive ant in northern Australia. Biological Invasions 12(4): 959-969

Hoffmann. 2011. Eradication of populations of an invasive ant in northern Australia: successes, failures and lessons for management. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 3267-3278

Hoffmann, O’Connor. 2004. Eradication of two exotic ants from Kakadu National Park. Ecological Management & Restoration 5(2): 98-105

Hoffmann, Davis, Gott, Jennings, Joe, Krushelnycky, Miller, Webb, Widmer. 2011. Improving ant eradications: details of more successes, a global synthesis and recommendations. Aliens 31: 16-23

Hoffmann, Luque, Bellard, Holmes, Donlan. 2016. Improving invasive ant eradication as a conservation tool: a review. Biological Conservation 198: 37-49

Hwang. 2009. Eradication of Solenopsis invicta by pyriproxyfen at the Shihmen Reservoir in Northern Taiwan. Insect Sciences 16: 493-501

Krushelnycky. 2008. Developing techniques for invasive ant control: a test of 0.5 HP granular ant bait on Argentine ants at Haleakala National Park. Hawaii Invasive Species Council PCSU contract 438221

Krushelnycky, Haines, Loope, Van Gelder. 2011. The Haleakala Argentine ant project: a synthesis of past research and prospects for the future. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report 173

Lach, Barker. 2013. Assessing the effectiveness of tramp ant projects to reduce impacts on biodiversity. A report prepared for the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population, and Communities

Lach, Hoskin. 2015. Too much to lose: yellow crazy ants in the Wet Tropics. Wildlife Australia Spring 2015: 37-41

Lord Howe Island Board. 2013. Work plan to guide the eradication of the African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) from Lord Howe Island. Lord Howe Island Board (please note that this report is updated yearly, go to the Lord Howe Island Board website to check for updated versions)

McNaught, Wylie, Harris, Alston, Burwell, Jennings. 2014. Effect of broadcast baiting on abundance patterns of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and key local ant genera at long-term monitoring sites in Brisbane, Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 107(4): 1307-1315

Peck, Banko, Cappadonna, Snook, Euaparadorn. 2013. Distribution of invasive ants and methods for their control in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit HCSU-040 DOI:

Peck, Banko, Donmoyer, Kropidlowski, Pollock. 2015. Efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants on Johnston Atoll: results from crazy ant strike team IX, December 2014-June 2015. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit HCSU-067. DOI:

Peck, Banko, Donmoyer, Scheiner, Karmi, Kropidlowski. 2017. Efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants on Johnston Atoll: results from crazy ant strike teams X, XI and XII (June 2015-December 2016). Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit HCSU-081. DOI: Creative Commons License

Plentovich, Hebshi, Conant. 2009. Detrimental effects of two widespread invasive ant species on weight and survival of colonial nesting seabirds in the Hawaiian Islands. Biological Invasions 11: 289-298

Plentovich, Swenson, Reimer, Richardson, Garon. 2010. The effects of hydramethylnon on the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and non-target arthropods on Spit Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 459-465

Plentovich, Eijzenga, Eijzenga, Smith. 2011. Indirect effects of ant eradicaton efforts on offshore islets in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Biological Invasions 13: 545-557

Plentovich, Russell, Camacho, Fejeran. 2017. Yellow crazy ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes) reduce numbers and impede development of a burrow-nesting seabird. Biological Invasions DOI: 10.1007/s10530-017-1516-z

Schall, Hoddle. 2017. Disrupting the ultimate invasive pest partnership: how invasive ants impede biological control of ACP in Southern California citrus. Citrograph Winter 2017 8(1): 38-43

Stork, Kitching, Davis, Abbott. 2014. The impact of aerial baiting for control of the yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, on canopy-dwelling arthropods and selected vertebrates on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 30: 81-92

Vanderwoude. 2007. Little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) in Port Vila: report to Secretatiat of the Pacific Community on activities 4-14th October 2007, and recommendations for future management. Unpublished report to Secretariat of the Pacific Community, VCL New Zealand

Vanderwoude. 2008. Operational plan for management of Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. VCL New Zealand DOI:

Vanderwoude. 2014. Managing the impacts of the little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) in French Polynesia (download 2 MB). Unpublished report to Secretariat of the Pacific Community

Vanderwoude, Nadeau. 2009. Application methods for paste bait formulations in control of ants in arboreal situations. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 41: 113-119. DOI:

Vanderwoude, Onuma, Reimer. 2010. Eradicating Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Maui, Hawaii: the use of combination treatments to control an arboreal invasive ant. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 42: 23-31. DOI:

Weeks, McColl. 2011. Monitoring of the 2009 aerial baiting of yellow crazy ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on non-target invertebrate fauna on Christmas Island. Prepared for the Director of National Parks by CESAR Consultants Pty Ltd

White. 2011. Eradication of yellow crazy ants on Johnston Island. Region 1 FY 2011 Invasive Species Control Program Proposal

Wylie, Jennings, McNaught, Oakey, Harris. 2016. Eradication of two incursions of the red imported fire ant in Queensland, Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 17(1): 22-32